The American flag, or parts thereof (such as the stars and stripes), are widely used in jihadi propaganda to evoke negative sentiments towards U.S. foreign policy and military campaigns. The stars and stripes are also used to color other symbols in an image, thereby linking the symbols to U.S. foreign policy and military intervention in the Muslim world. In this image, the American flag is joined by the Israeli flag on the right. In addition, there is a barbed wire Star of David encircling the sacred Dome of the Rock, which is recognized and revered by all Muslims, and is also a powerful symbol of Palestinian nationhood. Built in 692 A.D. by the Umayyid caliph ‘Abd al-Malik on the site where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven in his mi‘raj (night journey), the Dome of the Rock is considered the third holiest site in Islam after Mecca and al-Madina.
The barbed wire serves a dual purpose: a political protest against Israeli sovereignty over the Temple Mount and Jerusalem in general, and an anti-Semitic comparison of Israeli Jews to German Nazi occupiers during WWII. Indeed, the barbed wire Star of David, which is featured prominently in the center of this image, is a popular motif, especially in more radical Arabic media outlets. Notably, the barbed wire here extends its reach beyond the Dome of the Rock, surrounding the American flag on the left and creeping onto the Israeli flag on the left. This is an expression of oft-repeated anti-Semitic sentiments and conspiracy theories regarding Jewish world domination. Finally, the picture of former U.S. President George W. Bush signals that the U.S. is under Israeli control, as well.